Dr Mark Browne
Role: 
ARC Senior Research Associate
Contact details:
Phone: 
+61 2 9385 8701
Office: 
Level 4 East
Biological Sciences South (E26)

UNSW, Kensington 2052

Browne mugshot

Overview

I work on conserving biodiversity by understanding the impacts of human activities (priority pollutants, plastic debris, urbanization) on biodiversity and rehabilitating affected habitats (ecological engineering).

I collaborate closely with colleagues at a wide range of national and international institutions, enabling a strong multi-disciplinary approach.

I am particularly interested in the scientific basis for biological conservation through managing environmental problems and I advise the United Nations, European Union and governments (Australia, U.K., U.S.A.) on this.

I have lectured (>120 contact-hours), prepared teaching materials, supervised post- and under-graduate students, and I have secured >$1.245M in research funding.

Research

Publications

https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=7ttGxAkAAAAJ

Plastic debris

Over the last 11 years, I have shown shores in Oceania, Asia, Africa, Europe, and North and South America are contaminated with microplastic (plastic debris < 1 mm), with more material in densely populated areas.
The source is probably sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. I have shown that washing a single garment add >1900 fibres to wastewater and using facial scrubbers can add millions of granules of microplastic to wastewater. In estuarine habitats my work demonstrated that the quantity of microplastics can be nearly twice that of larger plastic debris, yet it is a contaminant that has been largely ignored. I have also shown that habitats down-wind accumulate greater quantities of microplastic.

My work has shown for the first time that ingested microplastics accumulate in the gut of filter-feeding invertebrates (mussels) and can translocate into the circulatory system and haemocytes where they persisted for months. Further novel work with polychaete worms showed that ingesting microplastic transfers pollutants and additives into tissues compromising ecophysiological functions that sustain health and biodiversity. I have recently outlined the mechanisms by which debris impacts ecosystems by linking effects at multiple levels of organization (subcellular to ecosystem) and developing new frameworks to assess the ecological risks (e.g. quality of water, biogeochemical cycling, decomposition, maintenance of biodiversity, production of uncontaminated food) due to marine debris. Through this I have showed that policy about plastic debris is scientifically outdated and, if countries classified the most harmful plastics as hazardous, their environmental agencies could conserve greater levels of biodiversity by having the power to restore affected habitats and prevent more dangerous debris from accumulating.

To combat the problems of debris, I developed the Benign by Design programme (http://www.launch.org/innovators/mark-browne) which works with industry and government to determine how to reduce emissions of toxic debris from consumer products (e.g. clothing, packaging, exfoliants).

Priority pollutants & climatic change

I have shown that run-off from boat-yards can add large sources of copper to coastal habitats. Methods I developed to measure how copper affects invertebrates revealed that grazing limpets are more sensitive to copper than are filter-feeding mussels and predatory crabs. To make accurate predictions about the consequences of interactions between pollution and climatic change, I pioneered field-based techniques to manipulate copper and pesticides in marine habitats. Building on earlier work using blocks of plaster, I developed a field-laboratory at a marina with a programmable system of irrigation, which allowed me to control the delivery of contaminants to experimental plots within habitats. This allowed me to expose natural assemblages to complex regimes of chemical disturbance predicted under scenarios of climatic change through urban and agricultural run-off. A key finding from my experimental work was that metals and pesticides reduce the tenacity of limpets (i.e. how well they stick onto a surface).

Ecology of limpets

Through my work investigating the tenacity of limpets, I developed a portable apparatus (Tenaciometer) to measure their force of detachment (parallel and perpendicular) to the substratum) and a staining technique to estimate in situ, the size of the attached area of foot. These techniques were then used to determine how the performance of limpets is influenced by natural (predatory birds, exposure to waves, height and slope of shore) and anthropogenic stressors (metals, biocides, modification of habitats).

Employment

Senior Research Associate 2018-2015
University of New South Wales (with EJ Johnston)

Post-doctoral Fellow: NCEAS 2014-2012
National Center for Ecological Analysis & Synthesis, UCSB, Santa Barbara, USA (with SD Gaines & KL Law)

Post-doctoral Fellow: Irish Research Council (equivalent of DECRA) 2012-2009
University College Dublin, Ireland (with TP Crowe)

Postdoctoral Fellow: Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities 2009-2008
University of Sydney, Australia (with AJ Underwood, MG Chapman & RA Coleman)

Research Assistant in Ecotoxicology 2004-2000
University of Plymouth, U.K. (with MH Depledge, TS Galloway & MB Jones)

International Research Intern 2000
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar & Marine Research, Germany (with K Rieser)

Biography

As a Research Assistant (with Michael Depledge, Tamara Galloway & Malcolm Jones), I developed assays to measure the ‘health” of organisms, testing the sensitivity of species to contaminants and applying these measures in marine and freshwater habitats across Europe. 

Ecological, physiological and toxicological skills developed during this time led to my Ph.D. (supervised by Richard Thompson & Tamara Galloway), unraveling the environmental and biological consequences of microplastic.  Through this I was invited to a EICC Post-doctoral Fellowship in Australia (with Tony Underwood, Gee Chapman & Ross Coleman) investigating the ecological impacts of urbanization, climatic change and microplastic.

Skills I developed in experimental design, statistics, quantitative ecology and conservation developed my interest in the ecological basis by which habitats can be sustainably managed.  To pursue this I secured an IRCSET Post-doctoral Fellowship in Ireland (with Tasman Crowe), testing the ecological relevance of biomarkers in predicting the impacts of pollution on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. 

This led to an invitation to a NCEAS Post-doctoral Fellowship in the US to assemble and co-lead a working group investigating the sources, fate, risks and impacts of debris in marine habitats (with Steve Gaines and Kara Lavender Law). 

Teaching, thesis examination & supervision

Lecturer: development & teaching of curriculum  20 contact-hrs

B.Sc. EEMB 94            Issues in Marine Conservation, UC Santa Barbara

B.Sc. ENVB 30010     Systems Ecology, UC Dublin

B.Sc. BIOL 2018         Effects of fishing, University of Sydney                 

M.Sc. ENVI 5904        Experimental design & environmental uncertainty, University of Sydney

Assistant lecturer: experimental design & ANOVA courses 104 contact-hrs

Postgraduate course, San Diego State University, USA 

Postgraduate course, National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Argentina

Undergraduate examiner of honours projects

B.Sc. Environmental Biology, University College Dublin                                       2011  

B.Sc. Marine Biology Honours project, University of Sydney                              2009

Undergraduate Supervisor 

Jennifer Halstead      B.Sc. (Hons) Environmental Science, UNSW                      2015

Whitney Reyes          B.Sc. (Hons) Environmental Science, UCSB                        2012

Meabh MacMahon    B.Sc. (Hons) Environmental Biology, UC Dublin                2011

Phillip Crump             B.Sc. (Hons) Environmental Science, Plymouth Uni.         2007

Steve Cartwright       B.Sc. (Hons) Marine Biology, Plymouth Uni.                      2006

Daniel Stone              B.Sc. (Hons) Marine Biology, Plymouth Uni.                      2006

Martin Dibley             B.Sc. (Hons) Geography, Plymouth Uni                              2006

Postgraduate supervisor 

Fabiana T. Moreira   Ph.D. University of Sydney                                       2011-2007

Niamh O’Neill             M.Sc. University College Dublin                               2011-2010

Jessica Midbus           M.Sc. University California, Santa Barbara             2014-2013

Michael Mori              M.Sc. University California, Santa Barbara             2014-2013

Paula Ritcher                         M.Sc. University California, Santa Barbara             2014-2013

Professional affiliations & industrial engagement

Invitations to review manuscripts for journals

Biological Conservation, Environmental Science & Technology, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biofouling, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Marine Environmental Research, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Ecotoxicology, Science of Total Environment, Biology Letters, PNAS, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.

Reviewer of grants

NOAA, Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Ecological Society of Australia, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Macquarie University (Australia) Research Fellowships

Member of professional bodies

NCEAS Marine debris working group (co-leader), NCEAS Coastal defenses working group, North Sea Plastic Marine Litter Scientific Advisory Board (Chairman), British Ecological Society, Ecological Society of Australia, Unitas Malacologica, Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, North American & European Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry

Scientific advisor on ecological management

United Nations and Inter-governmental

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, International Whaling Commission

EU Government

European Union, Member of Parliament (U.K.), Department for Fisheries, Food & Rural Affairs (U.K.), Environment Agency (U.K.), Natural England (U.K.), Fingal County Council (Ireland)


US Government

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, US Army Core of Engineers, Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, US AID, US State Dept.

Australian Government

Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Environment & Climate Change, North Sydney Council, Marrickville Council, Mosman Council, Hornsby Shire Council, Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority, Kogarah Council, Noosa Council


Industry & non-profit

Parley for the Oceans, G-star, Patagonia, American Association of Textile Chemists & Colorists, Blue Circle, Boral, Coca Cola, Ocean Conservancy, The Nature Conservancy, World Conservation Society, Nike, Eileen Fisher.

Session-chair

1. SETAC North America, U.S.A. 2012


2. International Marine Debris Conference, Hawaii 2011


3. International Temperate Reef Symposium, U.K. 2011

Media

NY Times

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/29/opinion/sunday/what-comes-out-in-the-wash.html

Guardian

http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/oct/27/toxic-plastic-synthetic-microscopic-oceans-microbeads-microfibers-food-chain

Nature                                  

www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7368/full/478159e    

Science Magazine  

http://news.sciencemag.org/environment/2011/10/laundry-lint-pollutes-worlds-oceans

PNAS

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5547.extract

 BBC    

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25186871

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-16709045

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04v5fjy

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-26034196

NASA

https://vimeo.com/76075636

National Geographic

http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2013/03/12/should-plastics-be-labeled-hazardous-to-reduce-ocean-pollution/

Science Daily          

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131202142735.htm

ABC

http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2012/s3418575.htm

www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2936248.htm

Scientific American           

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/oceans-teem-with-tiny-plastic-parti-11-11-20/

USA Today               

http://content.usatoday.com/communities/greenhouse 2011/post//10/ washing-machines-cause-ocean pollution/      

Aljazeera

http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/04/2012426372405531.html

Sydney Morning Herald

www.smh.com.au/environment/twist-on-nature-he-grows-seashells-by-the-sea-shore-20091016-h14z.html